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  • Norman MacLeod
    Zoological Systematics. 2017, 42(1): 4-33.
    Morphometrics has been pursued by graphical and computational means since the European Renaissance, drawing on core geometric principles first discovered in China and Classical Greece. Through the late 1800s, two distinct approaches to such analyses were pursued: a deformationist approach, epitomized by D’Arcy Thompson’s graphical trans-formation grids and the statistical approach popularized by Francis Galton, Karl Pearson, and Julian Huxley in which Cartesian spaces were employed to summarize patterns of variation in size and/or shape variables. Unification of these approaches was an oft-stated goal throughout the 20th century, but proved elusive until the mid-1980s when David Kendall, Fred Bookstein, and Colin Goodall proposed a radically new way of understanding form — as the locations of configurations of landmarks on the surfaces of a nested series of hyperdimensional manifolds. Once this new mathematics of form was understood development of basic concepts, procedures, graphical tools, and statistical tests followed quickly such that the core of the long-hoped for synthesis took less than a decade to achieve. The result — geometric morphometrics — continues to develop into an ever-more extensive toolkit that can be used by researchers to describe and understand a wide range of problems involving the characterization of morphological similarities and differences in all of their many and varied contexts. In particular, the new approaches involving the direct analysis of image pixels and new tools such as machine learning and artificial intelligence are set to reinvigorate (and possibly to revolutionize) the field once again.
  • Ming Bai, Jing Li, Wencheng Wang, Rolf G. Beutel, Benjamin Wipfler, Wangang Liu, Sha Li, Mengna Zhang, Yuanyuan Lu, Xingke Yang
    Zoological Systematics. 2017, 42(1): 34-45.
    Geometric morphometrics (GM) is an important method of shape analysis and increasingly used in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Presently, a single character comparison system of geometric morphometric data is used in almost all empirical studies, and this approach is sufficient for many scientific problems. However, the estimation of overall similarity among taxa or objects based on multiple characters is crucial in a variety of contexts (e.g. (semi-)automated identification, phenetic relationships, tracing of character evolution, phylogenetic reconstruction). Here we propose a new web-based tool for merging several geometric morphometrics data files from multiple characters into a single data file. Using this approach information from multiple characters can be compared in combination and an overall similarity estimate can be obtained in a convenient and geometrically rigorous manner. To illustrate our method, we provide an example analysis of 25 dung beetle species with seven Procrustes superimposed landmark data files representing the morphological variation of body features: the epipharynx, right mandible, pronotum, elytra, hindwing, and the metendosternite in dorsal and lateral view. All seven files were merged into a single one containing information on 649 landmark locations. The possible applications of such merged data files in different fields of science are discussed.
  • Original Paper
    Yongxia Chen, Dekui He, Hao Chen, Yifeng Chen
    Zoological Systematics. 2017, 42(4): 490-507.
    Four loaches, Niwaella brevipinna Chen & Chen, sp. nov., N. fimbriata Chen & Chen, sp. nov., N. nigrolinea Chen & Chen, sp. nov. and N. qujiangensis Chen & Chen, sp. nov., are described based on specimens collected from Zhejiang and Anhui Provinces, East China. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 28 individuals of seven species from seven locations collected from Zhejiang, Anhui and Jiangxi Provinces were amplified and analyzed. Morphological and molecular data showed that N. fimbriata Chen & Chen, sp. nov. and N. nigrolinea Chen & Chen, sp. nov., N. brevipinna Chen & Chen, sp. nov. and N. laterimaculata (Yan & Zheng), N. qujiangensis Chen & Chen, sp. nov. and N. longibarba Chen & Chen are closely related. The seven Chinese Niwaella species, N. brevipinna Chen & Chen, sp. nov., N. fimbriata Chen & Chen, sp. nov., N. laterimaculata, N. longibarba, N. nigrolinea Chen & Chen, sp. nov., N. qujiangensis Chen & Chen, sp. nov., and N. xinjiangensis are clearly distinguished by the combination of the color patter, mental lobes, suborbital spine, caudal peduncle, body shape, and subdorsal scales.
  • Original articles
    Xiao Chen; Hong-Gang Ma; Khaled A.S. Al-Rasheid; Miao Miao
    Zoological Systematics.
    The well-known ciliate, Mesodinium Stein, 1863, is of great importance to marinemicrobial food webs and is related to the "red tides". However, it is possibly one of the mostconfusing ciliate taxa in terms of its systematic position: either the morphologicalor the molecular data excluded it from all the other known assemblages or groups.In the current work, the sequences of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genesfor all isolates available are analysed and an examination of the secondary structurepatterns of related groups is carried out. The results indicate that (1) Mesodinium invariably represents a completely separated and isolated clade positionedbetween two subphyla of ciliates with very deep branching, which indicates thatthey should be a primitive or ancestral group for the subphylum Intramacronucleata;(2) the secondary structure of the SSU rRNA of Mesodinium species is unusual in that, while the secondary structureof V4 in Mesodinium sp. has the deletionscommon to all litostome ciliates, it has more extensive deletions in helix E23_8and a longer helix E23_1; (3) combiningthe phylogenetic and morphological information, we suggest establishing Mesodiniea cl. nov. , including the order MesodiniidaGrain, 1994, belonging to the subphylum Intramacronucleata.
  • Yu-Hui Chen; Xiao-Min Chen; Cheng-Chen Wu; An-Tai Wang
    Zoological Systematics.
    A new freshwater turbellarian species, Dugesia sinensis Chen & Wang, sp. nov., is described, which was collected from Caoxi rivulet, Shaoguan, Guandong Province, China. The morphology, reproduction, histochemical localization of AChE and phylogenetics based on COI gene of the new species was observed and analysed. The new species differs from its sister species in the developed diagram of the male atrium, the bursal canal to the left of the copulatory apparatus and distance (1 mm) between copulatory bursa and the mouth. In addition, the results indicated that morphological differences of AChE+ nerve structure can be used as a distinguishable character for species identification of genera Dugesiidae.
  • Yongxia Chen, Yifeng Chen
    Zoological Systematics. 2016, 41(4): 379-391.
    A new spined loach, Cobitis gracilis sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from Jilin and Heilongjiang Provinces, China. Morphological and molecular data showed that C. gracilis sp. nov. is closely related to C. granoei Rendahl and C. melanoleuca Nichols. The new species differs from its sister species in lamina circularis, suborbital spine, and pigmentation at the base of caudal fin. In addition, both morphological and molecular analyses revealed that specimens of C. lutheri Rendahl from China differs from those from Korea. Korean specimens are appropriately placed in a separate species. Molecular analyses revealed that C. choii Kim & Son is a new record in China.
  • Original Paper
    Zhao Pan, Guodong Ren
    Zoological Systematics. 2018, 43(1): 66-88.
    The subfamily Meloinae from Xizang of China is revised: totally 8 genera and 34 species are recorded; Meloe (Meloe) scabrus sp. nov. is described and illustrated as new to science; Mylabris (Chalcabris) bistillata Tan, 1981, stat. rev. is transferred from Hycleus; and a key to the species is presented. Three species, Lytta battonii Kaszab, 1962, Lytta kryzhanovskyi Kaszab, 1962 and Hycleus cichorii (Linnaeus, 1758), were wrongly recorded in Xizang.
  • Jean-Pierre Dujardin, Sebastien Dujardin, Dramane Kaba, Soledad Santillán-Guayasamin, Anita G. Villacís, Sitha Piyaselakul, Suchada Sumruayphol, Yudthana Samung, Ronald Morales Vargas
    Zoological Systematics. 2017, 42(1): 46-58.
    To distinguish species or populations using morphometric data is generally processed through multivariate analyses, in particular the discriminant analysis. We explored another approach based on the maximum likelihood method. Simple statistics based on the assumption of normal distribution at a single variable allows to compute the chance of observing a particular data (or sample) in a given reference group. When data are described by more than one variable, the maximum likelihood (MLi) approach allows to combine these chances to find the best fit for the data. Such approach assumes independence between variables. The assumptions of normal distribution of variables and independence between them are frequently not met in morphometrics, but improvements may be obtained after some mathematical transformations. Provided there is strict anatomical correspondence of variables between unknown and reference data, the MLi classification produces consistent classification. We explored this approach using various input data, and compared validated classification scores with the ones obtained after the Mahalanobis distance-based classification. The simplicity of the method, its fast computation, performance and versatility, make it an interesting complement to other classification techniques.
  • Ke-Long Jiao; Wen-Jun Bu
    Zoological Systematics. 2014, 39(1): 154-161.
    This paper provides the notes on the supertribe Brachineuridi and a review of the diagnostic characteristics of the genus Cingola Fedotova & Sidorenko with two new species from China. The generic diagnosis of Cingola is revised to give an adequate description and a key to males of all known Cingola species is given. Two new species, Cingola circularis sp. nov. from Henan, Jiangxi and Yunnan, and Cingola ceratodicrata sp. nov. from Guizhou are described and illustrated. The type specimens were deposited in the Institute of Entomology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
  • Jirui Wang, Yuzhou Du, Zhihong Xu
    Zoological Systematics. 2016, 41(4): 427-438.
    Six species of whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), namely Aleuromarginatus corbettiaformis Martin, Aleurotrachelus machili Takahashi, Asialeyrodes indica Sundararaj & David, Asterobemisia takahashii Danzig, Pealius akebiae (Kuwana) and Tetraleurodes neemani Bink-Moenen, are reported as new records to Chinese fauna and redescribed with their morphology, illustrations and photographs of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection of Yangzhou University.
  • Original articles
    Hang Zhang; Yi-Kui Li; An-Tai Wang
    Zoological Systematics.
    Two new turbellarian species, Gieysztoria shantouensis Zhang, Li & Wang, sp. nov. and G. huizhouensis Zhang, Wu & Wang, sp. nov. are described, which were collected from ditches in Shantou and Dongjiang River, Huizhou of Guangdong Province, respectively. G. macrovariata (Weise, 1942) was firstly recorded in China. All specimens examined were deposited in National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
  • Original Paper
    Feng Zhang, Bruno C. Bellini2, Felipe N. Soto-Adames
    Zoological Systematics. 2019, 44(4): 249-278.
    The largest superfamily Entomobryoidea is one of the key groups in Collembola. However, incorrect recognition of chaetotaxic homology within Entomobryoidea severely impedes the accurate species comparison of adults and phylogenetic reconstruction. Traditional classification of the superfamily at suprageneric level is disputable in the light of recent advances. Transformational homology of tergal chaetotaxy was traced and revised based on 38 species of first instar and partial early instars. Morphological phylogenetic reconstructions were reconstructed mainly relying on first instar characters using both parsimony and likelihood-based algorithms. Outgroup selection and several rogue taxa impacted on resolution and support of otherwise well-supported clades. Integrating published molecular phylogeny, a revised classification of three families and nine subfamilies was presented: Orchesellidae, Entomobryidae and Paronellidae. Orchesellidae includes all basal taxa having a short fourth abdominal segment. Cyphoderidae and Microfalculidae taxa were sunk into Paronellidae. New Paronellidae was divided into two subfamilies: Paronellinae (Paronellini + Cyphoderini + Bromacanthini) and Salininae (Cremastocephalini + Callyntrurini). Microfalculidae (Microfalcula) was closer to Salina and Akabosia and thus transferred into Cremastocephalini. This study erected a new classification framework for Entomobryoidea based upon comprehensive phylogenies. Chaetotaxic homologization across a wide range provided a standardized, comparable, powerful tool for taxonomy.
  • Chenglong Ren, Li Chen, Zhu Li
    Zoological Systematics. 2016, 41(4): 415-426.
    A new record species of genus Aegosoma Serville, 1832 is reported from China. The male genitalia of seven species from the genus Aegosoma are described and compared. The result shows that 16 genital characters, such as narrow position of the apex of parameres, ratio of length and width of parameres, curvature of tegmen, ratio of spiculum gastrale and spiculum relictum, ratio of penis and tegmen, ratio of median structs and median lobe, curvature of penis, ratio of tegmen and parameres etc., can be used to identify species of Aegosoma. A key to Chinese species of Aegosoma is presented.
  • Original articles
    Fu-Qiang Chen; Chun-Sheng Wu
    Zoological Systematics.
    The taxonomy of the Chinese Schoenobiinaeis revised. In total, 12 genera and 49 speciesare recognized. This paper presents keysto the genera and species,illustrations of wingvenation for eachgenus, and line drawings of genitalia of mostspecies. Two new species, namely, Schoenobius scirpus sp.nov. and Ramila minima sp.nov., are described. The female of Scirpophagaadunctella Chen,Song, and Wu, 2006 isreported for the first time. Donacaula forficellus (Thunberg, 1794) reported by Wang (1980) is proven to be a misidentification of S. scirpus sp.nov. The diagnostic characteristics of Schoenobiinae and the taxonomic status of some generaare discussed. Acropentias, Leechia, Brihaspa, and Promacrochilo are suggested to be removedfrom the subfamily because these genera do not share any synapomorphiccharacters with Schoenobiinae.
  • Original articles
    Juli Pujade-Villar; Yi-Ping Wang; Xue-Xin Chen; Jun-Hua He
    Zoological Systematics.
    A taxonomic review is provided for the Section I of the inquiline gallwasp genus Synergus, including the description of a new species from China, S. deqingensis Pujade-Villar, Wang & Chen sp. nov. and redescription of all previously known species of the section from the that region. Synergus jezoensis Uchida & Sakagami, 1948, a species previously considered of uncertain status from Japan, is treated herein as a valid species, and is redescribed and reported for the first time from China. Andricus mukaigawae (Mukaigawa, 1913) and its inquiline, S. japonicus, are reported for the first time from China. A key is provided to all four East Palearctic species in Section I of Synergus.
  • Original Paper
    Jingyoh Zaelor, Sangvorn Kitthawee
    Zoological Systematics. 2018, 43(1): 27-36.
    Fruit flies in Bactrocera tau complex are important pests, but their morphological taxonomy is still unsettled. In this paper, specimens from gac fruits (Momordica cochinchinensis) are attempted to classify by geometric morphometric and genetic analyses. Geometric morphometric study of wing venation and aculeus shape among samples suggested a new species in this taxon. Sequences in the cytochrome oxidase I region were compared with reference material in this complex, as well as other taxa within the same subgenus. Phylogenetic analysis based on COI revealed a new species of the B. tau complex, B. tau form J. Therefore, the criteria of body color patterns proved to be taxonomically valid for species classification and identification in this species complex.
  • Original Paper
    Sile Du, Yunzhi Yao
    Zoological Systematics. 2018, 43(3): 283-293.
    Cucullitingis biacantha gen. & sp. nov., a new genus and species of the family Tingidae is described and established based on two fossil specimens from the mid-Cretaceous Burma amber. According to the statistical result of fossil tingids, the evolution of hood, carinae and paranota was discussed.
  • Communication
    Shuqiang Li
    Zoological Systematics. 2020, 45(2): 73-77.
    This paper summarizes the advances and challenges in spider taxonomy of China. A table comparing the number of valid genera and species in China, Europe and the world is provided. To date, the Chinese spider fauna is represented by 5,084 species, under 809 genera in 69 spider families. An “All Species Inventory” of spiders in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden provides an example of China’s spider species richness, with more than 782 species recorded within a small area. Intensified research in recent years has grown the national catalog of Chinese spiders from 1,050 species in 1983 to 5,084 species today. There are reasons to believe that spider species richness in China will far exceed this grand total. With enhanced support and investment in spider taxonomic research, many more new species will be discovered and described in China
  • Abdulaziz Davlatov, Gexia Qiao, Chunsheng Wu
    Zoological Systematics. 2016, 41(3): 318-322.
    The article provides new data on the butterfly fauna of the Peter the Great Mountain range, especially the first reports of the analysis of the quantitative accounts on the number of butterflies. However, the presented species in the work (51 species) is not the final, as not all parts of the mountain range were visited.
  • Original Paper
    Jixiang Cui, Yun Su, Hu Li, Zhihong Li
    Zoological Systematics. 2019, 44(4): 304-315.
    The booklice genus, Liposcelis (Psocodea: Liposcelididae), owns some stored product pests and have economic importance. In this study, 6 booklice specimens from Sri Lanka were collected and identified based on morphological and molecular data. According to the morphological and phylogenetic analyses, the samples were identified as Liposcelis entomophila. The mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) were sequenced for phylogenetic work. The phylogenetic trees show that the samples assemble with L. entomophila together and could be distinguished with other Liposcelis spp. apparently. The genus Liposcelis and the species L. entomophila are firstly reported in Sri Lanka.
  • Fang Zhong; Ming Bai; Yang Ge; Xia Wan
    Zoological Systematics. 2014, 39(1): 136-148.
    Prosopocoilus gracilis (Saunders, 1854) and its seven allied species from China are revised. Lectotype, paralectotypes of P. gracilis (Saunders, 1854) and P. denticulatus (Boileau, 1901) are designated. The doubtful species, P. piceipennis (Westwood, 1855) is evidently confirmed as a valid species with verification of its type depository. Two highly similar species, P. crenulidens(Fairmaire, 1895) and P. denticulatus (Boileau, 1901) are compared in detail for correcting longstanding wrong diagnoses of them. P. similis Schenk, 2009 is illustrated with male genitalia firstly. Two recently-published species, P. andreasi Schenk, 2009 and P. katsurai Fujita, 2010 are treated as new junior synonyms. All the five valid species in this paper are redescribed, with illustrations of adult (including type) habitus, male and female genitalia if they are available. A key to large males is provided for identifying them briefly.
  • Chunguang Wang, Zhenzu Xu, Jiaqi Huang, Donghui Guo, Mao Lin, Zhen Xia
    Zoological Systematics. 2016, 41(4): 392-403.
    This study reviews all South China Sea species belonging to the families Rathkeidae and Zancleopsidae. Morphological characters of Lizzia blondina Forbes, 1848 (formerly recorded as Podocoryne/Hydractinia minuta), L. gracilis (Mayer, 1900), L. octostyla (Haeckel, 1879) and Podocorynoides minima (Trinci, 1903) (formerly recorded as Podocoryne/ Hydractinia minima) are redescribed. One new species, Zancleopsis oblongus Xu, Huang & Wang, sp. nov. from South China Sea, is described and illustrated. The keys to all medusa genera of Rathkeidae and Zancleopsidae and to all species of Zancleopsis are presented. The type specimen is deposited in the Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, China.
  • Original Paper
    Heng Zhang, Guiyou Wu, Yanqing Wu, Jianfei Yao, Shuo You, Chencheng Wang, Feng Cheng, Jingjing Chen, Mingxia Tang, Chunlin Li, Baowei Zhang
    Zoological Systematics. 2019, 44(4): 279-293.
    A new species of white-toothed shrew, Crocidura anhuiensis Zhang, Zhang & Li, sp. nov. is described from Mount Huang, China. Genetic sequence (mtDNA Cyt b gene) and morphological (external and skull) data are used to distinguish this newly discovered species. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the materials of this work are monophyletic and allied to C. attenuata by the uncorrected genetic distance 4.9–5.1%, which suggests a species-level divergence. Morphologically, the materials are different from C. attenuata by presenting a greater proportion of tail-to-body ratio and the presence of an obvious tooth root in the mandible. Based on those data, the unnamed species is described as a new species which is currently known only from the Wild Monkey Valley, Mount Huang, Anhui Province, China.
  • Qiuping Zhao, Eryan Shi, Yue Li, Renate Eberl, Jianmei An
    Zoological Systematics. 2016, 41(4): 352-365.
    The soil animal Mongoloniscus sinensis (Dollfus, 1901) is distributed in Northern China together with three other congeneric species only found in Asia. Compared to European and North American Oniscidea, little phylogeographic information about this Asian genus has been reported. Herein, we infer the genetic structure and demographic history of M. sinensis based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCoI). The total dataset included 193 individuals from 26 locations in four provinces (Shanxi, Henan, Hebei and Shandong) of China. Most of the 87 haplotypes were unique to a sampling location, but seven haplotypes were shared among the populations. The results showed that high genetic differentiation exists both within populations and among the groups and populations of M. sinensis. According to the distribution of phylogenic clades and geographic analyses, it is suggested that mountain ranges play an important role in population separation and that the possible evolutionary trajectory of this species is from north to south. The most likely place of origin is the Northeast Plain of China with an estimated time of isolation separating populations around 8 Mya.
  • Sitha Piyaselakul, Bumpenporn Sanannam, Jean-Pierre Dujardin
    Zoological Systematics. 2017, 42(1): 108-122.
    Various studies on the difference of distal femoral condyles between genders have been reported recently in order to provide anatomic information for knee prosthesis design and surgical planning in total knee arthroplasty. They also had the objective to be used as a sex recognition character, as may be needed in forensic medicine. Except for a recent 3D approach on the distal femur, most of the studies used dimensional information or aspect ratio but not shape. Our 2D study aimed to determine the size and shape variation of femoral condyles in Thais, considering age, sex and sides. One hundred and twenty-four cadaveric femurs (male 84 legs and female 40 legs) were dissected. The specimens were photographed by digital camera and images were analyzed using three geometric techniques: (i) the landmark-based method (5 landmarks), (ii) with or without addition of 23 sliding semilandmark and (iii) the outline-based methods. From the resulting geometric coordinates, size and shape were extracted for comparisons between genders and sides. Between sides, directional asymmetry could be detected only for shape variation, and only when introducing curves in the analyses (either through the semilandmarks technique or through the outline-based one). Non-directional asymmetry, probably fluctuating asymmetry, was detected for size, as well as for shape, in both genders. Sex discrimination was performed for each geometric technique using two classification methods: the Mahalanobis distance classification and the Maximum likelihood classification. The latter provided much more satisfactory gender validated reclassification (87%) than shape (72%).
  • Original Paper
    Hua Rong, Houhun Li
    Zoological Systematics. 2017, 42(4): 463-475.
    The genus Stericta Lederer, 1863 is reviewed in China. Of the ten species treated, two species are described as new: S. corollina sp. nov. and S. digitata sp. nov. Photographs of adults and genitalia are provided. Keys to the available species are given, based on superficial characters and male genitalia.
  • Original Paper
    Peng Hou, Xin Li, Ding Yang, Chuntian Zhang
    Zoological Systematics. 2018, 43(3): 294-308.
    The genus Gonia Meigen, 1803 (Diptera, Tachinidae) is reviewed from China. One new species, G. yunnanensis Hou, Yang & Zhang, sp. nov., are described and illustrated. Three newly records from China, G. foersteri Meigen, 1938, G. nigricoma Lee & Han, 2010 and G. olgae (Rohdendorf, 1927) are noted and illustrated too. Diagnoses of species examined and a key to 14 species of Gonia in China are provided.
  • Original Paper
    Xi Zhang, Hongzhang Zhou
    Zoological Systematics. 2018, 43(2): 125-138.
    Global species diversity is a historical result of speciation minus extinction and can be exhibited by phylogenetic patterns, whereas speciation is a process that may concern reproductive isolation and relating, at least in most sexual reproductive insects or other similar animals, to genital morphological evolution. The aedeagus is male genital organ that determines valid mating and reproductive isolation. However, definite correlation between aedeagus variation and species richness has not yet been clearly demonstrated. Here the phylogenetic tree of the rove beetle subfamily Staphylininae is built up based on 3085 bp DNA sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), nuclear 28S rDNA, nuclear genes wingless (Wg) and topoisomerase I (TP). Branching times and confidence intervals are calculated with molecular clock calibrations based on rove beetle fossil records. Different types of aedeagus, namely, median lobe plus a single paramere (Asp), a pair of parameres (App), or a single but bifurcated paramere (Abp), are marked on the phylogenetic tree and the genital morphological variations are compared in different genus-level taxa. The result shows that active cladogeneses occurred during late Cretaceous to late Paleogene, with those clades of Staphylininae evolved to be a more species-rich ones accompanied by larger aedeagus modifications. This implies that male genital morphological evolution might promote rove beetle speciation.
  • Original Paper
    Xuefeng Wang, Kun Lin, Zhenzu Xu, Donghui Guo, Jiaqi Huang
    Zoological Systematics. 2019, 44(3): 191-205.
    The study reviews all medusa genera and species belonging to the families Bougainvilliidae, Eucodoniidae, Proboscidactylidae, Corymorphidae and Sugiuridae from the northern South China Sea. A new genus Xu, Guo & Wang, gen. nov. is erected under the family Sugiuridae, based on the monotype, Monocanna ovale (Mayer, 1900) comb. nov. from Gastroblasta. Four new species, Nubiella terminaliknoba Xu, Guo & Wang sp. nov., Paranubiella shenzhenensis Xu, Huang & Wang, sp. nov., Eucodonium crassonemalis Xu, Guo & Lin, sp. nov. and Proboscidactyla trifurcata Xu, Huang & Guo, sp. nov., are described and illustrated here. The species Euphysora knides Huang, 1999 stat. rev. is revised to be a valid species. The keys to known genera of families Corymorphidae, Sugiuridae and species of genera Paranubiella, Eucodonium, Proboscidactyla are provided. All type specimens are deposited in the College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University.
  • Original Paper
    Liu Yang, Heng Zhang, Chenling Zhang, Jun Wu, Zhaocheng Wang, Chunlin Li, Baowei Zhang
    Zoological Systematics. 2020, 45(1): 1-14.
    In this study, a new species of white-toothed shrew, Crocidura huangshanensis Yang, BW Zhang & Li, sp. nov. was described based on five individuals collected from the Mt. Huang of China. Its morphological data and mtDNA sequences (Cyt b) were analyzed. Morphologically, C. huangshanensis Yang, BW Zhang & Li, sp. nov. is different from its congeners (C. anhuiensis and C. attenuata) by the body and skull smaller in size and the premolar and molar smoother, which are also different from other Southeast Asian Crocidura. The phylogenetic analysis shows that all individuals of C. huangshanensis Yang, BW Zhang & Li, sp. nov. merged into a single clade. In addition, the genetic distance between C. huangshanensis Yang, BW Zhang & Li, sp. nov. and other species of Crocidura is ranged from 9.8% to 15.3%, indicating a species-level divergence. The new species is currently distributed in the Wild Monkey Valley, located in Mt. Huang, China.
  • Correspondence
    Yuqi Wang, Shuxia Wang
    Zoological Systematics. 2017, 42(4): 508-513.
    Fourteen species of the genus Autosticha Meyrick, 1886 are recorded from Taiwan, China.The genus Cynicocrates Meyrick, 1935 is proposed as a new synonym of Autosticha, and its type species A. tachytoma (Meyrick, 1935) comb. nov. is transferred to Autosticha. Autosticha cordiformis sp. nov. is described as new, and A. tachytoma is redescribed with male for the first time. A checklist of all the described species in Taiwan is given. Photographs of the new species and the newly combined species are provided.
  • Original articles
    Zhu-Hong Wang; Jian Huang; Zhi-Hong Xu
    Zoological Systematics.
    Four species of the genus Prochiloneurus Silvestri, belonging to the family Encyrtidae of Hymenoptera, are reported from China. Among them, P. stenopterus Wang, Huang & Xu sp. nov., which is reared as the hyperparasitoid of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), an invasive mealybug to China, is reported as new to science. A key of the genus is provided for the recognition of the females of Chinese species. Notes on the parasitoid and hyperparasitoid of the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis are provided.
  • Original Paper
    Wai-Chun George Ho
    Zoological Systematics. 2018, 43(1): 37-51.
    The following five species and six subspecies in the genus Neohirasea Rehn from Vietnam are described as new to science: N. biserrata sp. nov., N. bispina bispina sp. nov. & subsp. nov., N. bispina babeensis subsp. nov., N. catbaensis sp. nov., N. coomani sp. nov., N. hilli hilli sp. nov. & subsp. nov., N. hilli nahangensis subsp. nov., N. hilli vietnamensis subsp. nov. and N. maerens pseudomaerens subsp. nov. A key to the Vietnamese species and subspecies of this genus is provided.
  • Correspondence
    Tengfei Qiu, Yuanyuan Lu, Weiwei Zhang, Shuo Wang, Yuxia Yang, Ming Bai
    Zoological Systematics. 2017, 42(3): 390-394.
    The first stag beetle found in Cretaceous Myanmar amber, Electraesalopsis beuteli Bai, Zhang & Qiu gen. & sp. nov., is described and illustrated on the basis of one well-preserved specimen. This specimen provides more detailed morphological characters compared with compression fossils, e.g. the highly setose antennae and the punctured elytra. However, the systematic position of the new genus is still questionable and we provisionally place it as Lucanidae incertae sedis. In addition, the discovery of Electraesalopsis Bai, Zhang & Qiu gen. nov. also indicates that there is very high biodiversity in Burmese amber. The new discoveries in future studies on Burmese amber will provide more information and improve our knowledge of biogeography and early evolution of the Lucanidae.
  • Hong-Xia Liu; Hou-Hun Li
    Zoological Systematics. 2014, 39(1): 149-153.
    The genus Etiella Zeller, 1839 is reviewed in China. Etiella brevis sp. nov. is described as new; E. grisea Hampson, 1903 and E. walsinghamella Ragonot, 1888 are newly recorded for China. Images of adults and genitalia are provided, along with a key to all the known Chinese species of this genus.
  • Original Paper
    Zeqing Niu, Dan Zhang, Chaodong Zhu
    Zoological Systematics. 2020, 45(1): 50-58.
    The first records of the extraordinary and amazing bees Lasioglossum longirostre (Morawitz, 1876) and a new species L. submandibulare Niu, sp. nov., from China are reported in this paper, with their descriptions, illustrations, and floral association. The species of Lasioglossum from China is up to 170.
  • Original Paper
    Bin Zheng, Yunliang Wang, Chenchen Xia, Dunyuan Huang, Yan Cao, Jiasheng Hao, Chaodong Zhu
    Zoological Systematics. 2018, 43(1): 1-17.
    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Parnassius actius (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Parnassinae) was reported. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic position of this Apollo species was inferred from this sequence combined with other available related sequence data. The results showed that the whole mitogenome is 15,386 bp in length, containing 13 typical protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and a noncoding control region (A+T-rich region). The mitogenomic gene orientation and arrangement are the same with other sequenced Parnassius species. Thirteen protein coding genes is 11,195 bp in size, encoding 3,720 amino acids totally; the lrRNA and srRNA genes are 1,351 bp and 779 bp, respectively. Eleven intergenic spacers ranging from 1 to 40 bp (129 bp in total), 10 overlapping regions from 1 to 8 bp (26 bp in total), and a 504 bp A+T-rich region harboring some Parnassius-specific sequences are scattered throughout the whole mitogenome. The maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that the genus Parnassius of this study contained five major clades which can be categorized into the eight subgenera reported by the previous molecular studies; additionally, the P. actius was shown to be more closely related to P. nomion than other Parnassius species, suggesting that the P. actius stands as an effective species with its phylogenetic position awaiting further studies.
  • Letter
    Qiang Li, Xiaoyan Luo, Qian Liu, Zhentao Cheng, Xiaolei Huang
    Zoological Systematics. 2022, 47(3): 271-273.
  • Yuan Wang, Liyun Jiang, Yongjie Liu, Jing Chen, Gexia Qiao
    Zoological Systematics. 2016, 41(2): 123-132.

    Insect mitochondrial (mt) genomes are of great interest in researching on molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Aphidoidea have about more than 5 000 known species including some agricultural, forestry and horticultural pests. However, only nine complete mt genomes have been previously released in this insect group since the first one, Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae) in 2004. Herein, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of Eriosoma lanigerum, the first species from the subfamily Eriosomatinae. This study takes this species as an example, combing the research during past 12 years, and concludes the general methods to obtain, analyze and annotate the complete mitochondrial genome of aphid species.

  • Original Paper
    Kahong Cheung, Ming Bai, Manhin Leung, Yingming Lee, Kinfung Chan, Xingke Yang
    Zoological Systematics. 2018, 43(3): 233-267.
    Scarabaeinae is a globally distributed coprophagous coleopteran group with southeast Asia and Africa as the key areas of distribution. Located in the southern part of China, Hong Kong has subtropical climate and diverse habitats supporting a high diversity of scarabaeines. This paper gives a detailed review on Scarabaeinae from Hong Kong, including the new records to Hong Kong, photographic records of type specimens from Hong Kong, and identification keys to genera and species. A total of 13 genera and 51 species of scarabaeines were recorded in Hong Kong. Among them, 14 species were new records to Hong Kong found in the authors’ recent surveys, viz. Caccobius (Caccophilus) brevis Waterhouse, 1875, Copris (s. str.) punctatus Gillet, 1910, C. (s. str.) szechouanicus Balthasar, 1958, Microcopris propinquus Felsche, 1910, Onitis excavatus Arrow, 1931, Oni. intermedius Frivaldszky, 1892, Oni. subopacus Arrow, 1931, Onthophagus brutus Arrow, 1931, Ont. tricolor Boucomont, 1914, Ont. (Matashia) lenzi Harold, 1874, Ont. (s. str.) roubali Balthasar, 1935, Ont. (Parascatonomus) horni Balthasar, 1935, Scarabaeus (Kheper) erichsoni Harold, 1867 and Sisyphus (s. str.) indicus Hope, 1831. Onthophagus (Paraphanaeomorphus) trituber jacobsoni Kabakov, 2006 was found to be a new synonym of the nominate subspecies. Catharsius davidis Deyrolle & Fairmaire, 1878 and Copris davidis (Deyrolle & Fairmaire, 1878) were found to be the new synonyms of Catharsius molossus (Linnaeus, 1758). Hong Kong was also the only locality where Liatongus pugionatus and Onthophagus convexicollis were recorded over the world.
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